Stone pine is a Mediterranean tree species well adapted to central and Southern Portugal. Its socio-economic importance is reflected through the increasing area of plantations and has justified the development of a growth model to support forest management. is an individual tree level empirical growth model that can be applied to pure and mixed even- and uneven-aged stands. The model integrates modules for the  initialization of stands, growth prediction, additional calculus and thinning simulation:

 Prediction Module:

    • Site index curves (Calama et al. 2003)
    • Growth diameter (Freire 2010)

 Calculus Module:

    • Cone weigth prediction (accounting for masting (Freire 2010)
    • Crown diameter prediction (Freire 2010)
    • Height-diameter curves, one for even-aged stands (dominant height as a predictor), the other for uneven-aged stands (Freire 2010)
    • Self-thinning (Tomé 2001)
    • System of equations for total standing volumes and volume by assortments (Nunes et al. 2010)
    • Total biomass and biomass by tree components (Correia et al. 2010).


Calama R, Cañadas N, Montero G, 2003. Inter-regional variability in site index models for even-aged stands of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Spain. Annals of Forest Science, 60 (3): 259-269.

Correia AC, Pacheco C A, Tomé M, Faias SP, Dias AC, Freire JPA, Carvalho PO, Pereira JS, 2010. Biomass allometry and carbon factors for a Mediterranean pine (Pinus pinea L.). Forest Systems 19(3): 418-433.

Freire JPA, 2010. Modelação de crescimento e da produção de pinha no pinheiro manso. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa, Portugal.

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