Field Infrastructures

Ensaio de campo para estudo do impacto de diferentes alternativas de gestao do subcoberto em montado de sobro

Field trial to study the impact of different management alternatives for undergrowth in cork oak forests

State: Active

Start: 2003

Location: Montargil

This test, located near the town of Montargil, was installed under a protocol established between the CEF and the property management entity in 2002, with the aim of responding to a theme identified by the latter. It currently covers a total area of 6 hectares, characterized by an irregularly structured cork oak forest. In this area, undercover management is carried out according to one of the following alternatives: i) removal of weeds with a shredder at a minimum frequency of 3 years ii) removal of weeds with a shredder at a minimum frequency of 3 years followed by application of fertilizer iii) removal of bush every 9 years. The impact of the different alternatives, in interaction with the climate, is being monitored on the following variables: a) cork growth b) cork quality c) tree growth d) shrub composition of the undercover e) biomass of the undercover.

Responsible: Joana Amaral Paulo

Publications:

Ferreiro-Domínguez N., Palma J.H.N., Paulo J.A., Rigueiro-Rodríguez A., Mosquera-Losada M.R (2022) Assessment of soil carbon storage in three land use types of a semi-arid ecosystem in South Portugal. Catena, 213: 106196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2022.106196

Faias S.P., Paulo J.A., Firmino P.N., Tomé M. (2019) Drivers for annual cork growth under two understory management alternatives on a podzolic cork oak stand Forests, 10(2): 133.

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Rede de parcelas permanentes em plantações jovens de sobreiro

Network of permanent plots in young cork oak plantations

State: Active

Start: 2007

The network includes 44 plots, each with a fixed area of 2000 m2, measured every 3 years. The tree variables monitored are diameter at breast height and total height. In the year of its installation, soil profiles were opened and described, which allowed the physical conditions of the soil to be characterized in detail, determining root development, water retention, etc. Since the plots are located in plantations resulting from forestry reforestation projects, all forestry operations carried out (thinning, pruning, fertilization, etc.) are recorded in detail. During the most recent measurements, some of the trees were stripped of cork and were then sampled for cork. This network of plots has been the basis for several master's and doctoral studies on topics such as: analysis of intraspecific competition, mortality studies, effects of undercover management, forestry, or forest modeling. The network is expanding, in an attempt to achieve the greatest possible variability in terms of geographic distribution, soil types, climate and installation densities.

Responsible: Joana Amaral Paulo

Publications:

Firmino, P. N., Tomé, M., Paulo, J. A. (2023) Do Distance-Dependent Competition Indices Contribute to Improve Diameter and Total Height Tree Growth Prediction in Juvenile Cork Oak Plantations? Forests 14(5), 1066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/f14051066

Lecomte X., Paulo J.A., Tomé M., Veloso S., Firmino P.N., Faias S.P., Caldeira M.C. (2022) Shrub understorey clearing and drought affects water status and growth of juvenile Quercus suber trees Forest Ecology and Management, 503, 119760. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119760

Paulo J.A., Tomé M. (2017) Using the SUBER model for assessing the impact of cork debarking rotation on equivalent annual annuity in Portuguese stands Forest Systems, 26(1): e008.

Paulo J.A., Faias S.P., Ventura-Giroux C., Tomé M. (2016) Estimation of stand crown cover using a generalized crown diameter model: application for the analysis of Portuguese cork oak stands stocking evolution iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 9: 437-444.

Paulo J.A., Faias S., Gomes A.A., Palma J.H.N., Tomé J., Tomé M. (2015) Predicting site index from climate and soil variables for cork oak (Quercus suber L.) stands in Portugal New Forests, 46(2):293-307.

Coelho M.B., Paulo J.A., Palma J.H.N., Tomé M. (2012) Contribution of cork oak plantations installed after 1990 in Portugal to the Kyoto commitments and to the landowners economy Forest Policy and Economics, 17: 59-68.

Paulo J.A., Tomé J., Tomé M. (2011) Nonlinear fixed and random generalized height-diameter models for Portuguese cork oak stands Annals of Forest Science, 68(2): 295-309.

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MultiCanal Mesocosms (MCM)

MultiCanal Mesocosms (MCM)

State: Active

Start: 2016

Location: Tapada da Ajuda (Campus do ISA)

The present mesocosm consists of a set of 6 external artificial channels coated with zinc (each 0.4 m wide × 4 m long × 0.2 m deep), where water is supplied after being stored in a central tank of 3000 L. The water source is a natural spring whose water is distributed to the main containers (70 L) located in the upper section of each channel. Water from each channel, delimited downstream by a fixed mesh panel, flows to a downstream tank (70 L) connected to a pump (Kripsol OK-71 B, 0.56 kW) which operates in a closed system allowing water conditions to be maintained, regardless of that of the source tank. Water distribution and recirculation are guaranteed with a HDPE piping system.

Responsible: José Maria Santos

Publications:

Leite, T., Mameri D., Branco P., Vieira I., Oliveira M., Santos J.M. (2023) Swimming under pressure: the sub-lethal effects of a pesticide on the behaviour of native and non-native Cypriniformes fish Fishes, 8(9): 462. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8090462

Leite T., Branco P., Ferreira M.T., Santos J.M. (2022) Activity, boldness and schooling in freshwater fish are affected by river salinization Science of the Total Environment, 819: 153046. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153046

Mameri D., Branco P., Ferreira M.T., Santos J.M. (2020) Heatwave effects on the swimming behaviour of a Mediterranean freshwater fish, the Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei Science of the Total Environment, 730: 139152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139152

Gonino G., Branco P., Benedito E., Ferreira M.T., Santos J.M. (2019) Short-term effects of wildfire ash exposure on behaviour and hepatosomatic condition of a potamodromous cyprinid fish, the Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864). Science of the Total Environment, 665: 226-234. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.108

Leite T., Santos J.M., Ferreira M.T., Canhoto C., Branco P. (2019) Does short-term salinization of freshwater alter the behaviour of the Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei, Steindachner 1864)? Science of The Total Environment, 651(1): 648-655. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.191

Calapez A.R., Serra S.R.Q., Santos J.M., Branco P., Ferreira M.T., Hein T., Brito A.G., Feio M.J. (2018) The effect of hypoxia and flow decrease in macroinvertebrate functional responses: a trait-based approach to multiple-stressors in mesocosms. Science of the Total Environment, 637-638: 647-656. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.071

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River Experimental Flume (REF)

River Experimental Flume (REF)

State: Active

Start: 2006

Location: Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa (Protocolo permanente ISA-IST-LNEC)

The structure consists of a rectangular channel measuring 10 m long x 1 m wide x 1.2 m high, resembling a pool-type fishway, built on a steel structure with glass side walls that allows monitoring the behaviour and movements of fish species, as well as the hydraulic processes that occur within them. The device is made up of 6 successive basins divided by cross-walls with notches and /or orifices, or vertical slots. The slope is adjustable, between 0 and 15%. It also includes an upstream (1.85 m long × 1 m wide × 1.2 m high) and a downstream tank (4 m long × 3 m wide × 4 m high). This is a full-scale model (1:1); a very plastic structure and adaptable to different configurations in the search for new solutions for fish passage through river barriers, and to evaluate responses to hydraulic and hydrological variations, developing natural-based structures.

Responsible: José Maria Santos

Publications:

Amaral S.D., Branco P., Romão F., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Santos J.M. (2021) Evaluation of low-head ramped weirs for a potamodromous cyprinid: effects of substrate addition and discharge on fish passage performance, stress and fatigue Water, 13(6): 765. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060765

Romão F., Quaresma A.L., Santos J.M., Amaral S.D., Branco P., Pinheiro A.N. (2021) Multislot fishway improves entrance performance and fish transit time over vertical slots Water, 13(3): 275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030275

Silva A.T., Bermudez M., Santos J.M., Rabunal J.R., Puertas J. (2020) Pool-type fishway design for a potamodromous cyprinid in the Iberian Peninsula: the Iberian barbel-synthesis and future directions Sustainability, 12(8): 3387. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083387

Amaral S.D., Branco P., Katopodis C., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Santos J.M. (2019) Passage performance of potamodromous cyprinids over an experimental low-head ramped weir: the effect of ramp length and slope. Sustainability, 11(5): 1456. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051456

Amaral S.D., Quaresma A.L., Branco P., Romão F., Katopodis C., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Santos J.M. (2019) Assessment of retrofitted ramped weirs to improve passage of potamodromous fish Water, 11(12): 2441.

Hayes D., Branco P., Santos J.M., Ferreira M.T. (2019) Oxygen depletion affects kinematics and shoaling cohesion of cyprinid fish. Water, 11(4): 642. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040642

Romão F., Quaresma A.L., Santos J.M., Branco P., Pinheiro A.N. (2019) Cyprinid passage performance in an experimental multislot fishway across distinct seasons. Marine and Freshwater Research, 70(6) 881-890. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF18232

Amaral S.D., Branco P., Katopodis C., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Santos J.M. (2018) To swim or to jump? Passage behaviour of a potamodromous cyprinid over an experimental broad-crested weir. River Research and Applications, 34(2): 174-182. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rra.3232

Romão F., Santos J.M., Katopodis C., Pinheiro A.N., Branco P. (2018) How does season affect passage performance and fatigue of Potamodromous Cyprinids? An experimental approach in a vertical slot fishway. Water, 10(4): 395.

Amaral S.D., Branco P., Romão F., Viseu T., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Santos J.M. (2018) The effect of weir crest width and discharge on passage performance of a potamodromous cyprinid. Marine and Freshwater Research, 9(12): 1795-1804.

Romão F., Quaresma A.L., Branco P., Santos J.M., Amaral S., Ferreira M.T., Katopodis C., Pinheiro A.N. (2017) Passage performance of two cyprinids with different ecological traits in a fishway with distinct vertical slot configurations. Ecological Engineering, 105: 180-188.

Amaral S., Branco P., Silva A.T., Katopodis C., Viseu T., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Santos J.M. (2016) Upstream passage of potamodromous cyprinids over small weirs: the influence of key-hydraulic parameters. Journal of Ecohydraulics, 1(1-2):79-89.

Silva A.T., Katopodis C., Tachie M., Santos J.M., Ferreira M.T. (2016) Downstream swimming behaviour of catadromous and potamodromous fish over spillways. River Research and Applications, 32(5): 935-945.

Branco P., Santos J.M., Amaral S., Romão F., Pinheiro A.N., Ferreira M.T. (2016) Potamodromous fish movements under multiple stressors: connectivity reduction and oxygen depletion. Science of the Total Environment, 572: 520-525.

Santos J.M., Branco P., Katopodis C., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N. (2014) Retrofitting pool-and-weir fishways to improve passage performance of benthic fishes: effect of boulder density and fishway discharge. Ecological Engineering, 73: 335-344.

Branco P., Boavida I, Santos J.M., Pinheiro A.N., Ferreira M.T. (2013) Boulders as building blocks: improving habitat and river. Ecohydrology, 6(4): 627-634.

Branco P., Santos J.M., Katopodis C., Pinheiro A., Ferreira M.T. (2013) Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows. PLoS ONE, 8(5): e65089.

Branco P., Santos J.M., Katopodis C., Pinheiro A.N., Ferreira M.T. (2013) Effect of flow regime hydraulics on passage performance of Iberian chub (Squalius pyrenaicus) (Gunther, 1868) in an experimental pool-and-weir fishway. Hydrobiologia, 714(1): 145-154.

Santos J.M., Branco P., Silva A.S., Katopodis C., Pinheiro A., Viseu T., Ferreira M.T. (2013) Effect of two flow regimes on the upstream movements of the Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) in an experimental pool-type fishway. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 29: 425-430.

Santos J.M., Silva A.T., Katopodis C., Pinheiro P.J.,. Pinheiro A.N, Bochechas J., Ferreira M.T. (2012) Ecohydraulics of pool-type fishways: getting past the barriers Ecological Engineering, 48: 38-50.

Silva A.T., Santos J.M., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N., Katopodis C. (2012) Passage efficiency of offset and straight orifices for upstream movements of Iberian barbel in a pool-type fishway. River Research and Applications, 28(5): 529-542.

Silva A.T., Santos J.M., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A., Katopodis C. (2011) Effects of water velocity and turbulence on the behaviour of Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei, Steindachner 1864) in an experimental pool-type fishway. River Research and Applications, 27(3): 360-373.

Silva A.T., Santos J.M., Franco A.C., Ferreira M.T., Pinheiro A.N. (2009) Selection of Iberian barbel Barbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864) for orifices and notches upon different hydraulic configurations in an experimental pool-type fishway. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 25(2): 173-177.

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Ensaio de campo de intensidades de descortiçamento

Field trial of cork debarking intensities

State: Active

Start: 2003

Location: Perímetro Florestal da Contenda

This trial includes 10 plots located in an area of cork oak forests, in which the trees are managed with three different levels of debarking intensities. The trees, measured since 1995, were debarked for the first time in 2003. The test aims to assess the long-term effect of different debarking intensities on tree and cork growth.

Responsible: Joana Amaral Paulo

Publications:

Paulo, J. A., Santos, D. I. (2023) Virgin cork colour and porosity as predictors for secondary cork industrial quality Industrial Crops and Products 205 (1): 117513. . DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2023.117513

Paulo J.A., Tomé M. (2017) Does debarking intensity in the first cork extraction affect future cork thickness? Annals of Forest Science, 74: 66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-017-0662-x

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